Medieval Muslim scholars are famed for their contributions to astronomical knowledge, but it is less clear how new students first learned to approach complex expert works like the Almagest. Part of the story may be found in the Middle Books of astronomy.
The term “early Muslim conquests” brings to mind Arabs taking a place with violence, without any cooperation from the local population. No doubt that was sometimes the case. But did the early Muslim “conquests” of Sasanian Iran follow this pattern? How did the locals’ reactions affect the conquests?